The final volume of the acclaimed official biography: "A meticulously detailed and annotated account of Churchill's declining years . . . A contemporary classic" (Foreign Affairs). The eighth and final volume of Winston S. Churchill's official biography begins with the defeat of Germany in 1945 and chronicles the period up to his death nearly twenty years later. It sees him first at the pinnacle of his power, leader of a victorious Britain. In July 1945 at Potsdam, Churchill, Stalin, and Truman aimed to shape postwar Europe. But upon returning home, was thrown out of office in the general election. Though out of office, Churchill worked to restore the fortunes of Britain's Conservative Party while warning the world of Communist ambitions, urging the reconciliation of France and Germany, pioneering the concept of a united Europe, and seeking to maintain the close link between Britain and the United States. In October 1951, Churchill became prime minister for the second time. The Great Powers were navigating a precarious peace at the dawn of the nuclear age. With the election of Eisenhower and the death of Stalin, he worked for a new summit conference to improve East-West relations; but in April of 1955, ill health and pressure from colleagues forced him to resign. In retirement Churchill completed his acclaimed four-volume History of the English-Speaking Peoples and watched as world conflicts continued, still convinced they could be resolved by statesmanship. "Never despair" remained his watchword, and his faith, until the end. "A milestone, a monument, a magisterial achievement . . . rightly regarded as the most comprehensive life ever written of any age." -Andrew Roberts, historian and author of The Storm of War "The most scholarly study of Churchill in war and peace ever written." -Herbert Mitgang, The New York Times
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Rudi Mittig born 26 January 1925 in Liberec (Reichenberg), Czechoslovakia, died 28 August 1994 in Berlin, Germany. Mittig served as Deputy Minister of the Stasi from 1975 to 1989 under Erich Mielke. Upon dissolution of the Stasi in 1989, he served as head of the successor Office of National Security until January 1990. He attended engineering school from 1939-1942 before being drafted into the army in 1943. At the end of World War II, he remained in the Soviet occupied zone and completed his engineering schooling. In 1950 he joined the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) and in 1952 he was appointed by the Stasi to division III of the Bureau of Economics in Potsdam. In 1953 he was appointed head of division III, in 1954 deputy operations head, and in 1955 Bureau head. From 1956-1963 he served as a member of the SED district management in Potsdam. In 1986 he became a member of the central committee of the SED and promoted to senior general of the Stasi. He retired in January 1990.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Soviet Occupation Zone or Ostzone, Russian: ????????? ???? ????????, Sovetskaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II. On 7 October 1949 the German Democratic Republic, which became commonly referred to as (East Germany), was established in the Soviet Occupation Zone. The SBZ was one of the four Allied occupation zones of Germany created at the end of World War II. According to the Potsdam Agreement, the Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SMAD) was assigned responsibility for the (present-day) eastern portion of Germany. Significant areas of what would become the Soviet zone of Germany were not handed over to the Soviets until a few months after the end of hostilities, having first been occupied by American forces.The Americans withdrew from the line of contact in July 1945 to the previously agreed upon occupation zone boundaries.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Vogelsang is a municipality in the Oder-Spree district, in Brandenburg, Germany. It is located near the border with Poland.Brandenburg (About this sound listen , Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of the sixteen states of Germany. It lies in the east of the country and is one of the new federal states that were re-created in 1990 upon the reunification of the former West Germany and East Germany. The capital is Potsdam. Brandenburg surrounds but does not include the national capital Berlin.
Max Volmer 3 May 1885 in Hilden 3 June 1965 in Potsdam was a German physical chemist, who made important contributions in electrochemistry, in particular on electrode kinetics. He co-developed the Butler-Volmer equation. Volmer held the chair and directorship of the Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry Institute of the Technische Hochschule Berlin, in Berlin-Charlottenburg. After World War II, he went to the Soviet Union, where he headed a design bureau for the production of heavy water. Upon his return to East Germany ten years later, he became a professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin and was president of the East German Academy of Sciences.
Kleine Broschur zu der Ausstellung im deutschen Generalkonsulat in New York vom 13.Februar bis zum 22.März 2019.Small booklet to the touring exhibition in the german Consulate General New York. Der Katalog ist in englischer Sprache.Catalog is in english. 40 Seiten davon 34 Seiten mit Bildern der Künstler40 pages, 34 pages with pictures from the artists. Vorwort von Jens-F. Dwars.foreword from Jens.-F Dwars.Hinweis zum großen Katalog "Grand Tour" ISBN 978-3-945377-25-3He small booklet is the odeuvre to the big Catalog "Grand Tour"Order No: 978-3-945377-25-3The fictional town of Kaisersaschern from Thomas Mann´s novel "Doctor Faustus" lies below Halle an der Saale. And his location is the imaginary centre for Bazon Brocks´s concept for an "educational trail of historical imagination". This "educational trail" can be fascinatingly regarded as the intention of the grand tour of Rüdiger Giebler & Moritz Götze. The two painters have been friends for thirty years. During this time they have often exhibited together, worked together and embarked on numerous travels. With its wrong-headed, interrupted history that was nonetheless stable and tranquil over long periods of time, Central Germany is a source of inspiration rich in imagery. The most disparate of biographies have crossed paths between the Harz mountains and the river Oder. They created a space filled with narrations. This is a region of mightty parks, of industrial landscapes, battlefields and nature reserves. Romanticism and rationalism interact here cheek by jowl. Paul Kaiser reflects upon the art-historical context of Giebler & Götze, from their mutual beginnings in East Germany to the present.Exhibition in Ahrenshoop, Athen, Bangalore, Berlin, Bonn, Brüssel, Düsseldorf, Erfurt, Frankfurt/M, Halle(Saale), Karlsruhe, Kasachstan, London, Lübeck, Magdeburg, Melbourne, München, Napier/New Zeeland, Naumburg, New York, Oldenburg, Potsdam, Quedlinburg, Saarbrücken, Schwäbisch Hall, Schweinfurt, Seattle, Sellin, Los Silos/Teneriffa, Teterow, Venice/California, Witten.
Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject American Studies - Culture and Applied Geography, grade: 1,0, University of Potsdam, course: International Environmental Policy, 19 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Climate change is the extraordinary warming of the Earth from increased concentration of greenhouse gasses (GHG)1 and the climate consequences of that warming, which can be in many ways harmful to humans and the environment.2 In the 1980s climate change appeared on the agenda in international politics3 but only since the end of the Cold War the climate change debate has shifted into the focus of concern in foreign policy circles4 until it was swept away by an omnipresent War on Terror after September 11. The United States, as the world's largest polluter5 to climate change - US emissions of CO² exceed those of all other countries6 plus on a per capita basis US CO²-emissions are the highest off all countries7 - plays a major, if not the decisive, role in international environmental politics and the dialogue for a global strategy to address climate change. While the United States was one of the leading countries in terms of progressive domestic legislation and one of the driving forces behind international environmental agreements (e.g. dealing with the problem of ozone depletion culminating in the Montreal Protocol) 8, the US is now not only blocking the Kyoto Protocol, but also actively pressuring other undecided countries not to sign and ratify the Protocol. Paradoxically, American scientists have played a leading role in identifying the anthropogenic affect on global warming and its dangerous consequences, yet political commitment and leadership to address the climate change problem is very weak. American foreign policy especially with regards to climate change can only be explained by a myriad of factors, ranging from concerns for national interests and the influence of domestic politics, to the ability of exercising leadership.9 In the course of this paper I want to shed some light on the politics behind the U.S. climate change policy. The main questions will be: Who are the key players in the decision-making process and which groups influence the policy-shaping of these key players. In the end I will reflect my findings upon the U.S. politics around the Kyoto Protocol and compare the approach to climate change policy of former President Clinton with that of current President Bush. My primary non-academic source is a telephone interview with Daniel Chao - legislative director for Congresswomen Grace Napolitano (D-CA) in the US House of Representatives and key Democratic10 House staffer for environmental issues - conducted December 28, 2003.
Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,3, University of Potsdam (Institut für Anglistik/Amerikanistik), course: Faith and Beauty: Varieties of Religious Poetry in English Literature, language: English, abstract: When William Wordsworth wrote 'Upon Westminster Bridge' in September 1802, London was the economical as well as political centre of England. London set the tone for nearly everything - fashion, worn in London, was imitated in other provincial towns. The city became a metropolis - a place of consumption. But on the other hand, London's big-city appearance had some unwelcome side effects. According to industrial production the city was covered by fog nearly everyday. Streets and other public places were noisy and dirty and a terrible smell, like in Paris at that time, must have filled the air. Many people neglected their religious belief and some of them might even have lost their belief in God. Wordsworth probably wanted to make people aware that there is something more than the big-city life which is connected with hard work for the lower classes and a life of decadence which the upper classes enjoyed.
States of Division analyses the division of Germany and the development of the Iron Curtain during the four and a half decades of the Cold War. The centerpiece of this global fault-line was the thousand-mile-long border dividing Germany into West and East. This long border traversed primarily rural peripheries and the development of division along it entailed protracted processes of social and cultural demarcation. Unlike the Berlin Wall, which sprang up overnight in the urban enclave under watchful eyes of Soviet and Western armies, the inter-German border evolved slowly through interactions between frontier residents and various state agencies. The division of Germany and of the world emerged through conflicts between everyday practices, economic necessities, policies of German and foreign governments, and their ability to push these policies through. The division of Germany was a multi-faceted process, which progressed slowly and unevenly. States of Division demonstrates that along with the crucial context of the Cold War, multiple historical and social frameworks are required to decipher division and explain how and where it took place. Dividing a modern integrated society along a thousand-mile border was not planned or intended by the allies and at no stage was agreed upon by East and West German authorities. It gave rise to contradictions and conflicts with practice and tradition, undermining economy and culture in the borderlands, and required protracted negotiations and considerable resources. It was not a fait accompli of Yalta or Potsdam, nor was it completed with the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961. German division only stabilized as a sociopolitical fact through the inter-German compromise of the 1970s, which also planted the seeds of its undoing. Integrating local, regional and national perspectives, this volume tells a complex story, showing how diplomacy and policy affected daily practices and were affected by them.